EQUITY MATERIALS IN MATHEMATICS,
SCIENCE, & TECHNOLOGY
A RESOURCE GUIDE

INTRODUCTION


The past fifteen years have produced an enormous amount of research and data on the composition of the mathematics, science and technology pipeline focusing on differentials of student access to and achievement in these subjects based on sex, race and ethnic group. At the same time, the development of intervention programs and projects based on the research has enabled educators to implement curricular and pedagogical changes to promote the achievement of all students, but especially those who have been traditionally underserved and underrepresented (females and students of color) in mathematics, science and technology. All recent reform initiatives insist that these students must be included to raise the overall level of achievement in mathematics, science and technology throughout the nation.

The goal of this Resource Guide is to make educators aware of the wide variety of publications that relate to educational equity in mathematics, science and technology and support a growing discipline. It does not pretend to provide complete bibliographic control of this subject, but rather it helps educators to have access to this selection of print and video materials which are physically located at the Resource Center and are available for borrowing.

In Part I of the Guide, teachers, guidance counselors, administrators, parents and others will find research studies on math anxiety and math avoidance; data on the entry of women and minorities into scientific education and their career prospects and progress; research on the sex differential in mathematics; comparative information and statistics on achievement in science and mathematics education in the United States and other countries. Above all, included here is information about programs and practical strategies for encouraging females and students of color in mathematics, science and technology. These materials will also assist educators to identify problems in those areas where the sex, racial and ethnic differentials are clearly established, and to explore the underlying causes and subtle barriers which discourage so many students from considering the relevance and usefulness of science and mathematics to their lives and future careers. With special thanks to car hire Austria Salzburg for their help along the way.



Part II lists organizations and professional societies that produce pamphlets and booklets on career information, usually directed at a particular population, such as women.

Part III lists videotapes and films dealing with educational equity and careers in mathematics, science and technology. Alphabetized by title, each entry is annotated briefly as to the content, format, running time and grade level (E = Elementary, K-6; S = Secondary, 7-12; SD = Staff Development and Postsecondary; G = General, wide appeal, appropriate for use with parents, community organizations, youth groups, and board members). Audiovisual Materials from the Resource Center lists the entire audiovisual collection covering all curricular topics.

All the entries included in this Guide contain brief annotations as to content, and have been evaluated for sex and race bias. They have been carefully selected and screened for their usefulness in reviewing the curriculum, evaluating instructional materials and conducting professional development sessions. Some may be used directly with students in the classroom. Ephemeral newsletters focusing on equity in mathematics, science and technology are included in a separate section.

Excluded from this Guide are textbooks and books for student use, biographical materials and books on specific careers, as well as videos easily available through other sources especially those from the public domain. Journal and magazine articles are also excluded as they are more effectively accessed through databases.

For a bibliography of materials to use specifically with elementary students, see Science Stuff for Girls and Boys, and for use with secondary students, Futures Unlimited in Science and Mathematics.

Funded in part by the Equity Assistance Center for Region B at New York University, the Resource Center is located at the Rutgers Consortium for Educational Equity, Livingston Campus 4090, New Brunswick, NJ 08903.

For further information, call or write to the Resource Center
(908) 445-2071
Fax (908) 445-0027.


Marylin A. Hulme
Resource Center Director
November, 1995.



I. PRINT MATERIALS

Monographs

Achievement and Participation of Women in Mathematics: An Overview. Jane M. Armstrong. Denver: Education Commission of the States, 1980.
This report of a two-year study identifies the major factors relating to the problems of women's involvement in mathematics and suggests strategies to increase their participation.

Alice in Puzzle-Land: A Carrollian Tale for Children under Eighty. Raymond Smullyan. New York: Penguin Books, 1982.
A range of puzzles deals with word play, logic, mathematics, and philosophy, featuring Alice and the creatures she meets in Alice in Wonderland.

Assessment Alternatives in Mathematics: An Overview of Assessment Techniques that Promote Learning. Jean Kerr Stenmark. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Lawrence Hall of Science, EQUALS, 1989.
This overview of possible assessment methods looks at student-generated products as well as their performance with the intent of supporting good education for all students, especially those students who find conventional testing inaccurate.

Assessment in Science and Mathematics Education: A State-Level Perspective. Angelo Collins. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1994.
Examines assessment activities in mathematics and science as reported from California, New York and other states in order to improve instruction and student achievement.

Background Materials and Curriculum Resources to Encourage Females into the Field of Mathematics, Science and Technology: An Annotated Bibliography. Toronto, Canada: Ontario Women's Directorate, 1993.
This useful reference tool includes research and practical resources to encourage females into mathematics and science. Journals, newsletters, and associations are also listed.

Benchmarks for Science Literacy. American Association for the Advancement of Science. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Building on Science for All Americans, this book specifies common goals on how students should progress toward scientific literacy, recommending what they should know and be able to do by the time they reach certain grade levels.

Blacks in Science. Ivan Van Sertima, ed. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1983.
Part 1 examines recent research on early African science, medicine, and technology outside Egypt; Part 2 looks at the experience and contributions of African Americans to science and technology in the United States.

Blacks, Science, and American Education. Willie Pearson and H. Kenneth Bechtel, eds. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1989.
Through the examination of data, policy recommendations, and research, the authors delineate the lack of African Americans in science, and suggest practical programs and policies for improving the situation in the future.

Breaking the Barriers: Helping Female and Minority Students Succeed in Mathematics and Science. Beatriz Chu Clewell and others. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1992.
The first half of this book focuses on barriers to participation and achievement in mathematics and science, with some interventions strategies; the second half discusses the delivery systems - their structure, responsiveness, and implementation.

Breaking The Science Barrier: How to Explore and Understand the Sciences. Sheila Tobias and Carl T. Tomizuka. New York: College Entrance Examination Board, 1992.
This book explores the fundamentals of understanding science, notably its vocabularies, and approaches to the various fields of study. It also discusses the ways in which science is taught to undergraduates.

Building Success in Math. Carol R. Langbort and Virginia H. Thompson. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing, 1985.
Using materials developed for an adult continuing education course, this book enables people from varied backgrounds and different levels of mathematics to "restart their math engines" and to succeed in problem-solving in a variety of mathematical areas.

Building Their Future: Girls in Technology Education in Connecticut. Suzanne Silverman and Alice M. Pritchard. Hartford, CT: Vocational Equity Research, Training and Evaluation Center, 1993-94.
This report examines technology education for girls in middle and high schools to identify discouraging barriers and also those major positive influences helping them remain in technology education.

A Challenge of Numbers: People in the Mathematical Sciences. Bernard L. Madison and Therese Hart. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1990.
Through data collection and analyses of surveys, this report describes human resources in the mathematical sciences; examines majors in mathematics and statistics, mathematical scientists in the workplace, and the role played by colleges and universities.

Changing America: The New Face of Science and Engineering, Final Report. Washington, DC: Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology, 1990.
Recommendations are presented to improve and extend mathematics and science education for all students.


The Common Thread: Best Practice for Students With Disabilities. Paper presented at the Working Conference on Science Education for Persons With Disabilities, Anaheim, CA, March, 1994.
Provides an overview of literature on best practice with strategies and activities to educate students with disabilities in science.

Computer Equity in Math and Science: A Trainer's Workshop Guide. Jo Sanders and Mary McGinnis. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1991.
A detailed guide to conduct an introductory workshop on gender equity in computer education can also be used to promote equity in mathematics and science.

The Computer Explosion: Implications for Educational Equity. Sheryl Denbo, ed. Washington, DC: Mid-Atlantic Centers for Race and Sex Equity, 1983.
Examines the impact of computer technology and programs in the classroom, on curriculum, and on access by girls and boys.

Computers and Cultural Diversity: Restructuring for School Success. Robert A. Devillar and Christian J. Falits. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1991.
Discusses the use of computers and cooperative learning in heterogeneous classrooms to improve achievement of all students, particularly those from disadvantaged backgrounds.

Constructivist Views on the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics. Robert B. Davis and others, eds. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1990. (Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, Monograph, 4)
Examines "constructivism" and how it can be applied to the process of mathematical thinking and to the way in which children characteristically engage in mathematical activity.

Cooperative Learning and Mathematics: A Multi-Structural Approach. Beth Andrinin and Spencer Kagan. San Juan Capistrano, CA: Resources for Teachers, 1989.
Provides multi-structural lesson plans for specific academic outcomes in mathematics using cooperative learning as an instructional technique.

Cooperative Learning in Mathematics: A Handbook for Teachers. Neil Davidson. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley, 1990.
Procedures are described to provide an alternative to traditional systems of teaching mathematics; can be applied to elementary classrooms and to graduate school and all major topic areas in mathematics.

Degrees in Science and Mathematics: National Trends and State-by-State Data.
National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, 1993. (NCES-93-183)
Provides statistical data on bachelor's, master's, and doctor's degrees in mathematics and science obtained in the United States during the last ten years. Data are broken down by field, state, and non-citizens, but not gender and ethnic group.

Doing What Scientists Do: Children Learn to Investigate Their World. Ellen Doris. Portsmount, NH: Heinemann, 1991.
This practical book helps teachers inspire curiosity and meet the needs of different children in the primary grades who are studying science; included are many examples of the children's work.

Double Dilemma: Minorities and Women in Science Education. Jane Butler Kahle. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University, 1982.
Describes a cooperative project run in Alabama and Indiana to encourage and support minorities in science in higher education; includes statistics on women in science.

EdTalk: What We Know About Science Teaching and Learning; What We Know About Mathematics Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: Council for Educational Development and Research, 1993.
Useful and up-to-date information on the pedagogy of mathematics and science is arranged in a question and answer format. These two books address instructional materials, equity, assessment, teachers, and parental involvement.

Educating Americans for the 21st Century. National Science Board Commission on Precollege Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation, 1983.
A plan of action for improving mathematics, science, and technology education for all American elementary and secondary students so that their achievement may be the
best in the world by 1995.

Elementary and Secondary Education for Science and Engineering: A Technical Memorandum. Washington, DC: Congress of the United States, Office of Technology Assessment, 1988.
Analyzes recruitment into and retention in the science and engineering pipeline; highlights successful strategies and programs.

Equity and Excellence: Compatible Goals, an Assessment of Programs that Facilitate Increased Access and Achievement of Females and Minorities in K-12 Mathematics and Science Education. Shirley M. Malcom. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1984.
Examines pre-college programs for females and minorities in mathematics and science which indicate that these populations can learn successfully.

Equity Framework in Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education (draft). National Science Foundation Statewide Systemic Initiative Equity Focus Group. Newton, MA: Education Development Center, 1994.
Lists benchmarks on equity in the areas of curriculum assessment, professional development, governance, partnerships, policies, and evaluation.


Equity in the Reform of Mathematics and Science Education: A Look at Issues and Solutions. Mary Jo Powell. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, 1994.
Reviews the literature of equity in mathematics, science and technology, and discusses the imperatives for assuring educational success for all students. It also examines a broad range of issues in educational equity from language to teacher training and expectations.

Evaluation Counts: A Guide to Evaluating Math & Science Programs for Women. Barbara Gross Davis and Sheila Humphreys. Oakland, CA: Mills College Math/Science Network, 1983.
Provides basic tools and practices of evaluation geared towards mathematics and science programs for women; includes an overview of intervention programs and specific evaluation strategies.

Fear of Math: How to Get Over it and Get on with Life. Claudia Zaslavsky. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1994.
Discusses math avoidance and math anxiety as related to gender and racial/ethnic group; includes autobiographies from people who originally feared math. and conquered that fear. Includes an extensive resource section.

The Federal Investment in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology Education: Where Now? What Next? Report of the Expert Panel for the Review of Federal Education Programs in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, 1993.
This report presents the recommendations of this special panel to promote true reform in science, mathematics, engineering and technology education; they emphasize improved management and coordination of programs, more balanced distribution of funds, and comprehensive program evaluation.

Feminine Ingenuity: Women and Invention in America. Anne L. Macdonald. New York: Ballantine, 1992.
The fascinating history of women inventors granted patents is presented within a historical and social context. It demonstrates clearly that women, even when hobbled by social mores and stereotypes, could and did produce an astonishing array of inventions.

Feminism and Science. Nancy Tuana, ed. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1989.
Addressing the scope of gender bias in science, this book examines the ways in which science reinforces and is also affected by sexist biases; discusses feminist critiques on the practice of science.

"Feminism and Science", Hypatia, 3:1, Spring, 1988. Special issue.
Examines the issues of gender in science, of surface inequities that are deeply based on the complex structure of bias. It continues with an analysis of the scientific method from a feminist perspective.

Formula for Reform: The Role of the Comprehensive University in Science and Engineering Education. John C. Wright, ed. Washington, DC: American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 1989.
Reviews the role to be played by public colleges in science education, including teacher training and re-training; includes a resource section of programs available throughout the country.

The Future of Science in Elementary Schools: Educating Prospective Teachers. Senta A. Raizen and Arie M. Michelson, eds. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1994.
Considering that science learning is important for all students and must start in primary school, this work addresses the education of new elementary school teachers to teach science effectively. (Very slight reference to gender and multiculturalism)

Futures Unlimited: Expanding Choices in Nontraditional Careers. Arlene S. Chasek. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University, Consortium for Educational Equity, 1985.
Illustrated by photographs of actual conferences, this handbook provides a step-by-step approach to planning and conducting a Futures Unlimited conference for 7-12 graders; targets female students to encourage them to continue studying mathematics and science.

Garbage Pizza, Patchwork Quilts, and Math Magic: Stories About Teachers Who Love to Teach and Children Who Love to Learn. Susan Ohanian. New York; W.H. Freeman, 1992.
Describes new initiatives for teaching mathematics in K-3 classrooms around the country, using first-hand reports from classroom teachers.

GASAT 4, Girls And Science And Technology: Proceedings of the Fourth GASAT Conference, 1987. Jane Butler Kahle and others, eds. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University, 1988.
Proceedings and papers from this international conference address issues of science and technology education for girls in many different countries and cultures.

GASAT 5, Gender And Science And Technology: Contributions to the Fifth International Conference, 1989. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 1990.
Papers discuss issues of gender equity in pre-college education, the participation of women in science and engineering, and workplace and "pipeline" concerns.

GASAT 7, Gender And Science and Technology: Contributions to the Seventh International Conference, 1993. Sharon Haggerty and Ann Holmes, eds. Toronto, Ont.: Ontario Women's Directorate, 1994.
Research reports and intervention projects demonstrate an enormous range of activity around the world dealing with gender equity in mathematics and science.




Gender and Mathematics: An International Perspective. Leone Burton, ed. London: Cassell Educational, 1990.
Collection of papers from the International Organization of Women in Mathematics Education (I.O.W.M.E.) reflects the range of work linking gender and mathematics around the world. It introduces methodologies and questions that are relevant to different cultures.

Girls Count in Math and Science: A Handbook for Teachers. Mary Barnes and others. Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia: Mathematical Association of NSW, Girls and Mathematics Action, 1984.
Provides strategies and activities to increase girls' participation in mathematics and science in high schools, with a section for parents; includes Australian data.

Girls into Maths Can Go. Leone Burton, ed. London: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1986.
These papers review and contrast the situation in the U.S. and the U.K. with reference to "math anxiety", and gender differences in mathematics education.

Guidebook to Excellence: A Directory of Federal Resources for Mathematics for the Mid-Atlantic Region, served by the Mid-Atlantic Eisenhower Consortium for Mathematics and Science Education. Columbus, OH: Eisenhower National Clearinghouse, 1994.
Comprehensive directory of programs and facilities supporting K-12 education in mathematics and science. Lists agencies and regional programs.

Handbook for Conducting Equity Activities in Mathematics Education. Helen Neely Cheek, ed. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1984.
Abstracts from conference presentations assist educators with equity issues in mathematics education. The handbook includes how to organize conferences for students and teachers.

Handbook on Improving the Retention and Graduation of Minorities in Engineering. Raymond B. Landis, ed. New York: National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering, 1985.
This manual addresses problems specific to African American, Latino, and Native American students and examines the barriers which prevent them from succeeding in engineering. It lacks coverage of the special problems of the minority female.

The History of Women and Science, Health, and Technology: A Bibliographic Guide to the Professions and Disciplines. Phyllis Holman Weisbard, ed. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin System Women's Studies Librarian, 1993.
This annotated bibliography covers perspectives on technology's effects on women's lives, individual biographies of women in science, and the history of women in science.



How to Encourage Girls in Math & Science. Joan Skolnick and others. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982.
Examines the effects of sex role socialization on girls from childhood into high school; provides strategies to develop mathematics and science skills. (A useful book for parents.)

How to Unravel Science Mysteries for Young Minds Without Unraveling: A Summary of Lessons Learned. Battle Creek, MI: W.K. Kellogg Foundation, 1993.
Presents the experiences of elementary science projects founded by Kellogg, addressing hands-on curriculum, parental involvement, and improving teachers science skills.

How to Use Cooperative Learning in the Mathematics Class. Alice F. Artzt and Claire M. Newman. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1990.
Practical handbook provides strategies and activities to help teachers infuse cooperative learning into their math classes, listing features of successful groups.

IDEAAAS: Sourcebook for Science, Mathematics and Technology Education. Barbara Walthall, ed. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1995.
This extensive and comprehensive compendium of national, state and local resources in mathematics, science and technology provides parents, teachers, and students with information on clubs, camps, museums, activities, research opportunities, internship and mentoring programs and publications.

Images of Science: A Summary of Results From the 1981-82 National Assessment of Science. Stacey J. Hueftle. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Science Assessment and Research Project, 1983.
The results of a national random sample of 9, 13, and 17-year-old students tested for response to science content and their attitude to science are analyzed by sex and race.

Improving Science Education Through Local Alliances, A Report to the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Myron J. Atkin and Ann Atkin. Santa Cruz, CA: Network Publications, 1989.
This study focuses on new, inter-institutional approaches to the improvement of science education, K-12, and examines the relationships amongst schools, industry, universities, and other organizations.

In Search of Gender Free Paradigms for Computer Science Education. Dianne C. Martin and Eric Murchie-Beyma eds. Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education, 1992.
A review of the research on gender in computer science and examines the differential achievement levels and involvement of females and males in computer environments, both in education and in employment and play.

Indicators of Science and Mathematics Education. Larry Suter, ed. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation, 1992.
Examines student performance. curriculum and instructional practices, quality of teaching force and persistence of students taking science and math; includes data by sex, race, ethnicity.

Industry's Role in the Reform of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education. Report of the Synergy Conference, June, 1993, Leesburg, VA. College Park, MD: Triangle Coalition for Science and Technology Education, 1994.
Purpose of this conference was to define and initiate new roles for industry in the systemic reform of K-12 science, mathematics and technology education, with strategies to dovetail with the national goals.

Innumeracy: Mathematical Illiteracy and Its Consequences. John Allen Paulos.
New York: Hill & Wang, 1988.
The general inability of people to deal rationally with large numbers, or with the probabilities and statistics associated with them, results in misunderstandings and misinformation. There is also a general reluctance to come to grips with growing mathematics illiteracy.

An International Review of Gender and Mathematics. Erika Schildkamp-Kuendiger. Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education, 1982.
Reports from researchers provide comparative information on the issue of mathematics and gender from Australia, Canada, Dominican Republic, England, Wales, India, Ireland, Israel, New Zealand, and the United States.

Intervention Programs in Math, Science, and Computer Science for Minority and Female Students in Grades Four through Eight. Beatriz Chu Clewell and others. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1987.
Directory of programs describes criteria for the programs' nomination and selection; evaluation identifies successful delivery models and pinpoints gaps in services to female and minority students at a crucial time in their intellectual development.

Investing in Human Potential: Science and Engineering at the Crossroads. Marsha Lakes Matyas and Shirley M. Malcom. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1991.
Examines efforts by higher education to increase the participation of women, non-Asian minorities, and people with physical disabilities in science and engineering.

Launching A Dream: A Teachers Guide To A Simulated Space Shuttle Mission. National Aeronautic Space Administration. Cleveland, OH: Lewis Research Center, 1989.
Provides students an opportunity to plan, train for, and conduct a simulated shuttle mission, taking the roles of astronauts, flight planners and controllers, and flight engineers. Good for career information and experience of team work.



The Levels of Mathematics Achievement: Initial Performance Standards for the 1990 NAEP Mathematics Assessment. Mary Lyn Bourque and Howard H. Garrison. Washington, DC: National Assessment Governing Board, 1991.
1, National and State Summaries; 2, State Results for Released Items.
State by state results describe what American students know and can do, and also evaluate whether that performance is good enough for students and the nation to flourish.

Lifting the Barriers: 600 Tested Strategies that Really Work to Increase Girls' Participation in Science, Mathematics and Computers. Jo Sanders. Port Washington, NY: Jo Sanders Publications, 1994.
Based on the experiences of the participants in the Computer Equity Project, this book contains successful strategies leading to increased enrollment of girls in advanced courses and after-school clubs in mathematics and science.

Making Sense of the Literature on Equity in Education, Draft One "...A Think Piece..." Jeanne Rose Century. Newton, MA: Education Development Center, SSI Technical Assistance, 1994.
Attempts to delineate some of the major areas of research, program implementation and debate rooted in the issue of equity starting with an overview of the literature, then identifying the stakeholders and examining recent developments in multicultural education.

Mathematics and Gender. Elizabeth Fennema and Gilah C. Leder, eds. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1990.
These longitudinal studies provide better understanding of how girls and boys learn mathematics and explain why they learn differently. The book includes a cross-cultural perspective on Australian research.

Mathematics and Science: Critical Filters for the Future of Minority Students.
DeAnna Banks Beane, ed. Washington, DC: Mid-Atlantic Center for Race Equity, 1985.
Surveys the factors underlying the underrepresentation of African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans in advanced mathematics and science courses. It presents resources and strategies to support change, and inclusion in mathematics and science of role models from underrepresented groups.

Mathematics in Art/Art in Mathematics. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University, Consortium for Educational Equity; Montclair, NJ: Montclair Art Museum, 1986.
This enrichment program for high school students uses art to enhance visual-spatial skills and mathematics to increase appreciation of design. Included are slides and diagrams of selected art and craft works.
The Mathematics Report Card: Are We Measuring Up? Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1988.
Based on the 1986 National Assessment, the levels of mathematical achievement answer the title's question "no"; too many students lack mathematical reasoning skills to work effectively both in higher education and in the work place.

Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education Programs that Work: A Collection of Exemplary Educational Programs and Practices in the National Diffusion Network. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, 1994.
This guide to the National Diffusion Network's science and mathematics programs provides teachers with innovative programs that work and can be readily implemented.

Measuring Up: Prototypes for Mathematics Assessment. National Research Council and the Mathematical Sciences Education Board. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1993.
Prototypes of tasks are created to assess fourth graders' mathematical skills and knowledge, reflecting demands of the NCTM standards.

Model Programs to Attract Young Minority Women to Engineering and Science: Report of a Working Conference. Rachelle S. Heller and C. Dianne Martin. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation, 1994.
This report addresses the problem of the lack of minority women in the engineering and science fields and responds by analyzing exemplary programs that exist to rectify this situation.

Multicultural Mathematics. David Nelson and others. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Examines the teaching of mathematics from a global or multicultural perspective and how to apply selected topics in elementary arithmetic, algebra, geometry and statistics. Includes brief references to "anti-racist" teaching, but nothing on gender.

National Center for Improving Science Education Reports. Andover, MA: The NETWORK, 1990.
This series of reports includes: Assessment in Science Education: The Middle Years; Science and Technology Education for the Middle Years; Developing and Supporting Teachers for Science Education in the Middle Years.

National Conference on Diversity in the Scientific and Technological Workforce: An Action Plan (draft). National Science Foundation, Directorate for Education and Human Resources. Washington, DC: 1994.
Focuses on the inclusion of science, mathematics, engineering and technology education (SMET) as one of the eight strategic areas for research and action; lists steps to be taken for successfully achieving the national science goal by the year 2000.



National Science Education Standards: July '93 Progress Report . National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment. Washington, DC: National Research Council, 1993.
This interim report provides a list of proposed standards for assessment and achievement in science.

New Equations: The Urban Schools Science and Mathematics Program. Elayne Archer. Washington, DC: Academy for Educational Development, 1993.
The efforts of this program to improve middle school science and mathematics in urban districts pinpoint algebra as a critical factor in determining minority students access to advanced courses and their continuing achievement.

No Gift Wasted: Effective Strategies for Educating Highly Able Disadvantaged Students in Mathematics and Science. Judith Alamprese and Wendy Erlanger. Washington, DC: COSMOS Corporation, 1989.
Analyzes district-wide as well as building-level efforts to develop disadvantaged students' academic skills and creative talents in mathematics and science; it includes case studies.

Nurturing At-Risk Youth in Math and Science: Curriculum and Teaching Considerations. Randolf Tobias, ed. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service, 1992.
Assists teachers to infuse different strategies and curricular extensions into the teaching and learning process of mathematics and science in order to raise students' interest, and to increase their self-confidence and self-esteem. Discusses issues of race and ethnicity, but not gender.

Nurturing Science and Engineering Talent: A Symposium. Philadelphia, PA: The Franklin Institute, 1986.
This symposium discusses the science and engineering talent pool, factors in career choice, and the importance of intervention programs, especially for women and students of color.

Options for Girls: A Door to the Future, an Anthology on Science and Math Education. Meg Wilson, ed. Austin, TX: pro-ed, 1992.
Anthology of key articles on sex differences and gender equity in mathematics and science provide an overview of the subject published in the last ten years; a valuable collection.

Persistence in Science of High-Ability Minority Students. Thomas Hilton and others. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1988.
Analysis of surveys and follow-up questionnaires shows that high ability minority students persist in mathematics, science, and engineering fields to a high degree. The report identifies characteristics for success.




Proceedings of the National Conference on Women in Mathematics and the Sciences. Sandra Keith and Philip Keith, eds. St. Cloud, MN: St. Cloud State University, 1990.
Papers provide up-to-date information and research on women and minorities in mathematics, science, and engineering; included are model programs, outreach, promotion, and "glass ceiling" information.

Promising Practices in Mathematics and Science Education: A Collection of Promising Educational Programs and Practices from the Laboratory Network Program, 1994. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education and available from the Regional Educational Laboratories.
A rigorous review process resulted in the selection of 66 programs, ranging from individual classroom activities to system-wide multi-grade efforts.

Promoting Success Through Collaborative Ventures in Precollege Science and Mathematics. New York: National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering, 1985.
Lists and describes programs whose aim is to bring students to mathematics and science study who would not otherwise be there. It specifically targets minority groups.

Reaching All Students with Mathematics. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1993.
Collection of accounts documents the activities and programs being developed and tested in classrooms to bring mathematics to all students; sections on making change address teaching and learning, both content and process.

Realizing the Potential of Women and Minorities in Engineering: Four Perspectives from the Field. Jane Zimmer Daniels and others. Washington, DC: National Governors' Association, 1990.
Results of the project by the NGA to identify successful intervention strategies to bring women and minorities into engineering are translated into state action agendas.

Reflections on Gender and Science. Evelyn Fox Keller. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984.
Nine essays examine the "genderization of science" from historic, psychoanalytic, and scientific perspectives. They also reflect on the sexual division of labor where science remains a masculine preserve.

Report on the 1985-86 National Survey of Science and Mathematics Education. Iris R. Weiss. Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute, 1987.
Research survey provides information on science and mathematics course offerings, textbook selection, instructional objectives, use or non-use of calculators and computers, and teacher level of education and qualifications.

Results From the Second Mathematics Assessment. Thomas P. Carpenter and others. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1981.
Item by item analysis points to overall decline in performance and provides a basis for the pattern of changes. This book includes information on race and gender differences in mathematics.

Science Achievement in Seventeen Countries: A Preliminary Report. International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1988.
This report presents the initial results of science achievement tests of 10, 14, and 17-year olds, and finds that the United States does poorly in comparison to other developed countries. The report includes data on gender differences.

Science and Engineering Indicators, 1987. National Science Board. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation, 1988.
Broad base of quantitative analysis and information on science, engineering, and technology provides excellent data on precollege science and mathematics education; higher education for science; research, development, and innovation. Included are data by race and gender.

Science and Engineering Programs: On Target for Women? Marsha Lakes Matyas and Linda Skidmore Dix, eds. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1992.
Examines the status of women in science and engineering, including programs specifically aimed at retaining women in postsecondary education and R and D employment.

Science and Gender: A Critique of Biology and Its Theories on Women. Ruth Bleier. New York: Pergamon Press, 1984.
Analyzes the role that science plays in maintaining the myth of women's biological inferiority; discusses ethnocentric and androcentric biases in scientific methodology, and describes the possibility of a feminist science.

Science Anxiety: Fear of Science and How to Overcome It. Jeffry V. Mallow. Clearwater, FL: H & H Publishing, 1986.
Written for students and teachers, as well as parents, this book examines science anxiety and recommends strategies to counteract it and to increase scientific literacy at all levels.

Science Assessment in the Service of Reform. Gerald Kulm and Shirley M. Malcom, eds. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1991.
This report addresses policy issues in science assessment, and how science assessment impacts on and is itself affected by curricular reform and instruction.

Science Education Partnerships: Manual for Scientists and K-12 Teachers. Art Sussman, San Francisco, CA: University of California, 1993.
Describes how to initiate a partnership between scientists and educators, using a wide variety of different models, in an effort to provide systematic change in precollege science education.

Science Experiences: Cooperative Learning and the Teaching of Science. Jack Hassard. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley, 1990.
Science experiences (or lessons) are described within the rubric of cooperative learning, with content information for both student and teacher.

Science for All Americans. Revised Edition. James F. Rutherford and Andrew Ahlgren. New York, Oxford University Press, 1994.
The report of Project 2061 provides philosophy and content to ensure that all students become well-educated in science, mathematics and technology.

Science for All Students: The Florida Pre K-12 Science Curriculum Framework, A Guide for Curriculum Planners. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Department of Education, 1993.
Designed to assist curriculum planners, this framework promotes and discusses a flexible instructional system to operate a quality science program. Includes recommendations for planning and evaluation and delineates what students should know.

Science Matters: Achieving Scientific Literacy. Robert M. Hazen and James Trefil. New York: Doubleday, 1991.
Aimed at the general reader, this book provides information needed to become scientifically literate and knowledgeable about those topics of importance for a citizen of the technologically complex society.

Science Report Card: Elements of Risk and Recovery. Ina Mullis and Lynn B. Jenkins. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1988.
Uses trends in science proficiency to examine opportunities available to study science, the nature of school science, home support of science learning, and students' perceptions of science. Data are reported out by gender and ethnic group.

Science Report Card: NAEP's Assessment of Fourth, Eighth, and Twelfth Graders. Lee R. Jones and others. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, 1992.
Presents information documenting lack of preparation in science, and comparatively low achievement of African Americans, Latinos, females, and economically disadvantaged students.

The Science, Technology, Society Movement. Robert E. Yager, ed. Washington, DC: National Science Teachers Association, 1993. (What Research Says to the Science Teacher, vol. 7)
The Science, Technology, Society (STS) movement involves learners in experiences and issues which are directly related to their lives. STS provides students with skills which allow them to become active responsible citizens knowledgeable in science and its impact on their lives.

Sex and Ethnic Differences in Middle School Mathematics, Science and Computer Science: What Do We Know? Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1985.
Reviews gender differences within ethnicity and examines factors related to achievement in mathematics and science.



Sex and Scientific Inquiry. Sandra Harding and Jean F. O'Barr, eds. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.
By reconsidering science in light of new research in gender, this book examines the social structure of science and the bias extant in biology, sociology, and technology.

Social Processes of Sex Differentiation in Mathematics. David R. Maines. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Program on Women, 1981.
This study determines the importance of role modeling occurring among males and females in mathematics and its function to reduce biases based on gender; main differentiation seems to lie in anticipated patterns of career and family participation.

A Strategy for Change in Elementary School Science. Proceedings of the National Science Teachers Association conference held in Washington, DC, February, 1992.
Conference presents strategies for change and highlights programs developed in elementary science within school districts.

Teacher Education and Mathematics: A Course to Reduce Math Anxiety and Sex Role Stereotyping in Elementary Education. Elaine B. Chapline and Claire M. Newman, eds. Newton, MA: Education Development Center, 1985.
This comprehensive approach enables prospective teachers to reduce their own levels of "math-anxiety", and to develop solid mathematics teaching skills.

Teaching Mathematics: Strategies That Work, K-12. Mark Driscoll and Jere Confrey, eds. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1986.
Described by the teachers who created them, these exemplary mathematics programs stress the importance of teacher-teacher peer interactions in order to solve common mathematics teaching problems successfully.

Teaching Mathematics Effectively and Equitably to Females. Katherine Hansen. Newton, MA: Education Development Center, 1992.
(Center for Equity and Cultural Diversity Working Paper, 1).
Reviews the nature of mathematics education in order to identify ways of increasing girls' interest and achievement in mathematics.

Teaching Science and Health From a Feminist Perspective: A Practical Guide. Sue V. Rosser. New York: Pergamon Press, 1986.
This guide examines changing pedagogical methods and specific curricular areas, to integrate gender into the curriculum as well as to improve classroom interaction.

The Technology Studies Framework: Thinking, Making, Doing. Errol Maruff and Peter Clarkson. Melbourne, Vic: Ministry of Education, 1988.
Defines and provides rationale for technology studies to be incorporated into the curriculum from primary grades on. Discusses teaching strategies with sample activities.
The Third National Mathematics Assessment: Results, Trends and Issues. National Assessment of Educational Progress. Denver: Education Commission of the States, 1983.
Performance levels for 9,13, and 17-year old in mathematics are assessed over a period of 10 years; included are data by sex and origin.

Trends in the Selection of Science, Mathematics, or Engineering as Major Fields of Study Among Top-Scoring SAT Takers. Jerilee Grandy. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1987.
This report examines the choice of major fields of study by top-scoring examinees, and finds few differences between the races but large differences between the sexes.

The Underachieving Curriculum: Assessing U.S. School Mathematics From an International Perspective. Curtis C. McKnight and others. Champaign, IL: Stipes Publishing, 1987.
Report of the Second International Mathematics Study examines teaching and learning of mathematics in the United States through the achievement and attitudes to mathematics of 13-year olds and high school seniors enrolled in advanced mathematics courses.

Understanding Sex/Ethnic Related Differences in Mathematics, Science and Computer Science for Students in Grades Four to Eight. Marlaine Lockheed and others. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1985.
Extensive review of the literature finds that little research has addressed gender differences within ethnicity, especially in the study of science and mathematics at the middle school.

Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives: Women in Science, 1789-1979. Pnina G. Abir-Am and Dorinda Outram, eds. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1987.
Analyzes how the interplay between career and professional life has affected the participation of women in science. Biographical studies of women scientists illustrate the personal and institutional difficulties suffered in different disciplines and places.

Wanted: More Women in Science and Technology, a Packet of Information and Suggestions for Junior and High School Counselors and Teachers Explaining the Importance of a Strong Background in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics. New York: American Physical Society, Committee on the Status of Women in Physics, 1981.

Who Will Do Science? Sue E. Berryman. New York: Rockefeller Foundation, 1983.
Examines the statistics of women and five racial/ethnic groups in quantitative degrees up to the Ph.D. level in relation to the scientific talent pool and identifies causes of underrepresentation.

Whose Science? Whose Knowledge? Thinking From Women's Lives. Sandra Harding. Ithaca, NY, Cornell University, 1991.
Explores the social and intellectual contexts for thinking about women, feminism, science and knowledge; also looks to the lives of groups that have not been central to Western feminist discussions of science.
Windows of Opportunity: Mathematics for Students with Special Needs. Carol A. Thorton and Nancy S. Bley, eds. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1994.
Addresses current issues of concern relating to high quality, broad-based, equitable school mathematics programs for students with special needs; includes "promising practices".

Women: Their Underrepresentation and Career Differentials in Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation, 1987.
These proceedings examine the educational pipeline for girls in mathematics and science, identifying the negative effects and citing the positive efforts to ensure equitable treatment of girls and women, precollege to postgraduate.

Women and Minorities in Science: Strategies for Increasing Participation. Sheila M. Humphreys, ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1982.
Surveys current levels of participation by women and minorities in the study of science and scientific careers, identifies barriers to participation, and describes a wide range of intervention programs.

Women and the Mathematical Mystique. Lynn H. Fox and others, eds. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980.
This expanded version of the American Association for the Advancement of Science symposium brings together basic research into sex differences in mathematics achievement and describes early intervention programs- a classic.

Women in Mathematics and Physics: Inhibitors and Enhancers. Susan Frazier-Kouassi, and others. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Center for the Education of Women, 1992.
By detailing the determinants of women's persistence in mathematics and physics at the undergraduate and graduate level, this research describes characteristics of these women as they continue studying; includes enrollment and retention data.

Women in Science: A Report From the Field. Jane Butler Kahle, ed. Philadelphia: Falmer Press, 1985.
Papers discuss factors affecting female achievement and interest in science and scientific careers, from high school to the post-doctorate. Women's roles in scientific organizations, discrepancies between women and men in science, and the "double bind" for minority women are also explored.

Women in Science and Engineering: Increasing Their Number in the 1990's, A Statement on Policy and Strategy. National Research Council, Committee on Women in Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1991.
This report examines the science and engineering education infrastructure and the effectiveness of intervention programs to sustain the recruitment and retention of women into science and engineering. It also includes data on participation rate and career paths.

Women in Scientific and Engineering Professions. Violet B. Haas and Carolyn C. Perucci. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1984.
Papers examine career opportunities and the status of women professionals in science, social science, and engineering; some ideas and strategies to encourage and increase the participation of women in science are included.

Women, Minorities and the Disabled in Science and Technology. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology of the Committee on Science, Space and Technology, House of Representatives. Washington, DC, 1988.
Testimony from those working in this field makes a case for reallocation of resources and programs to encourage these underrepresented groups into science.

Women Scientists in America: Struggles and Strategies. Margaret W. Rossiter. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982.
Examines women's efforts to gain significant education in the sciences and to enter the scientific world, with an emphasis is on research and academia.

A World of Differences: An International Assessment of Mathematics and Science. Archie E. LaPointe and others. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1989.
Thirteen year-old students from six countries were randomly selected to be tested in mathematics and science. Comparative data show poor performance by students in the United States.

The Young Scientists: America's Future and the Winning of the Westinghouse. Joseph, Berger. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1994.
Explores the controversial process of finding, collecting and nurturing gifted students, using the schools for gifted science students and the Westinghouse contest to understand the value of teaching research in science at a young age.


Newsletters

AWIM Newsletter. Association for Women in Mathematics, PO Box 178, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02181.
AWIS Newsletter. Association for Women in Science, 1346 Connecticut Avenue NW,
Suite 1122, Washington, DC 20036.

Connect: K-8 Hands-On Science and Math Across the Curriculum. Teachers' Laboratory, P.O. Box 6480, Brattleboro, VT 05302.

Focus on Science Education. California Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, CA 94118.

International Organization of Women and Mathematics Education (IOWME): Newsletter. c/o Sherry Fraser, Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.

International Study Group on Ethnomathematics Newsletter. Rick Scott, College of Education, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131.

National Science Resources Center Newsletter. Smithsonian Institution, National Science Resources Center, Arts & Industries Building, Room 1201, MRC 403, Washington, DC 20560.

Project 2061. American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1333 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005.

Teachers Clearinghouse for Science and Society Education Newsletter. 1 West 88th Street, New York, NY 10024.

U.S. Woman Engineer. Society of Women Engineers, 120 Wall Street, New York, NY 10005.

Women and Mathematics Education Newsletter. c/o Charlene and James Morrow, Mt. Holyoke College, 302 Shattuk Hall, South Hadley, MA 01075.


24/2/95

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