EQUITY MATERIALS IN MATHEMATICS,
SCIENCE, & TECHNOLOGY
A RESOURCE GUIDE
The past fifteen years have produced an enormous amount of research and
data on the composition of the mathematics, science and technology pipeline
focusing on differentials of student access to and achievement in these
subjects based on sex, race and ethnic group. At the same time, the development
of intervention programs and projects based on the research has enabled
educators to implement curricular and pedagogical changes to promote the
achievement of all students, but especially those who have been traditionally
underserved and underrepresented (females and students of color) in mathematics,
science and technology. All recent reform initiatives insist that these
students must be included to raise the overall level of achievement in mathematics,
science and technology throughout the nation.
The goal of this Resource Guide is to make educators aware of the wide variety
of publications that relate to educational equity in mathematics, science
and technology and support a growing discipline. It does not pretend to
provide complete bibliographic control of this subject, but rather it helps
educators to have access to this selection of print and video materials
which are physically located at the Resource Center and are available for
In Part I of the Guide, teachers, guidance counselors, administrators, parents
and others will find research studies on math anxiety and math avoidance;
data on the entry of women and minorities into scientific education and
their career prospects and progress; research on the sex differential in
mathematics; comparative information and statistics on achievement in science
and mathematics education in the United States and other countries. Above
all, included here is information about programs and practical strategies
for encouraging females and students of color in mathematics, science and
technology. These materials will also assist educators to identify problems
in those areas where the sex, racial and ethnic differentials are clearly
established, and to explore the underlying causes and subtle barriers which
discourage so many students from considering the relevance and usefulness
of science and mathematics to their lives and future careers. With special thanks to car hire Austria Salzburg for their help along the way.
Part II lists organizations and professional societies that produce pamphlets
and booklets on career information, usually directed at a particular population,
such as women.
Part III lists videotapes and films dealing with educational equity and
careers in mathematics, science and technology. Alphabetized by title, each
entry is annotated briefly as to the content, format, running time and grade
level (E = Elementary, K-6; S = Secondary, 7-12; SD = Staff Development
and Postsecondary; G = General, wide appeal, appropriate for use with parents,
community organizations, youth groups, and board members). Audiovisual Materials
from the Resource Center lists the entire audiovisual collection covering
all curricular topics.
All the entries included in this Guide contain brief annotations as to content,
and have been evaluated for sex and race bias. They have been carefully
selected and screened for their usefulness in reviewing the curriculum,
evaluating instructional materials and conducting professional development
sessions. Some may be used directly with students in the classroom. Ephemeral
newsletters focusing on equity in mathematics, science and technology are
included in a separate section.
Excluded from this Guide are textbooks and books for student use, biographical
materials and books on specific careers, as well as videos easily available
through other sources especially those from the public domain. Journal and
magazine articles are also excluded as they are more effectively accessed
For a bibliography of materials to use specifically with elementary students,
see Science Stuff for Girls and Boys, and for use with secondary students,
Futures Unlimited in Science and Mathematics.
Funded in part by the Equity Assistance Center for Region B at New York
University, the Resource Center is located at the Rutgers Consortium for
Educational Equity, Livingston Campus 4090, New Brunswick, NJ 08903.
For further information, call or write to the Resource Center
Fax (908) 445-0027.
Marylin A. Hulme
Resource Center Director
I. PRINT MATERIALS
Achievement and Participation of Women in Mathematics: An Overview. Jane
M. Armstrong. Denver: Education Commission of the States, 1980.
This report of a two-year study identifies the major factors relating to
the problems of women's involvement in mathematics and suggests strategies
to increase their participation.
Alice in Puzzle-Land: A Carrollian Tale for Children under Eighty. Raymond
Smullyan. New York: Penguin Books, 1982.
A range of puzzles deals with word play, logic, mathematics, and philosophy,
featuring Alice and the creatures she meets in Alice in Wonderland.
Assessment Alternatives in Mathematics: An Overview of Assessment Techniques
that Promote Learning. Jean Kerr Stenmark. Berkeley, CA: University of California,
Lawrence Hall of Science, EQUALS, 1989.
This overview of possible assessment methods looks at student-generated
products as well as their performance with the intent of supporting good
education for all students, especially those students who find conventional
Assessment in Science and Mathematics Education: A State-Level Perspective.
Angelo Collins. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement
of Science, 1994.
Examines assessment activities in mathematics and science as reported from
California, New York and other states in order to improve instruction and
Background Materials and Curriculum Resources to Encourage Females into
the Field of Mathematics, Science and Technology: An Annotated Bibliography.
Toronto, Canada: Ontario Women's Directorate, 1993.
This useful reference tool includes research and practical resources to
encourage females into mathematics and science. Journals, newsletters, and
associations are also listed.
Benchmarks for Science Literacy. American Association for the Advancement
of Science. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Building on Science for All Americans, this book specifies common goals
on how students should progress toward scientific literacy, recommending
what they should know and be able to do by the time they reach certain grade
Blacks in Science. Ivan Van Sertima, ed. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction
Part 1 examines recent research on early African science, medicine, and
technology outside Egypt; Part 2 looks at the experience and contributions
of African Americans to science and technology in the United States.
Blacks, Science, and American Education. Willie Pearson and H. Kenneth Bechtel,
eds. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1989.
Through the examination of data, policy recommendations, and research, the
authors delineate the lack of African Americans in science, and suggest
practical programs and policies for improving the situation in the future.
Breaking the Barriers: Helping Female and Minority Students Succeed in Mathematics
and Science. Beatriz Chu Clewell and others. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass,
The first half of this book focuses on barriers to participation and achievement
in mathematics and science, with some interventions strategies; the second
half discusses the delivery systems - their structure, responsiveness, and
Breaking The Science Barrier: How to Explore and Understand the Sciences.
Sheila Tobias and Carl T. Tomizuka. New York: College Entrance Examination
This book explores the fundamentals of understanding science, notably its
vocabularies, and approaches to the various fields of study. It also discusses
the ways in which science is taught to undergraduates.
Building Success in Math. Carol R. Langbort and Virginia H. Thompson. Belmont,
CA: Wadsworth Publishing, 1985.
Using materials developed for an adult continuing education course, this
book enables people from varied backgrounds and different levels of mathematics
to "restart their math engines" and to succeed in problem-solving
in a variety of mathematical areas.
Building Their Future: Girls in Technology Education in Connecticut. Suzanne
Silverman and Alice M. Pritchard. Hartford, CT: Vocational Equity Research,
Training and Evaluation Center, 1993-94.
This report examines technology education for girls in middle and high schools
to identify discouraging barriers and also those major positive influences
helping them remain in technology education.
A Challenge of Numbers: People in the Mathematical Sciences. Bernard L.
Madison and Therese Hart. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1990.
Through data collection and analyses of surveys, this report describes human
resources in the mathematical sciences; examines majors in mathematics and
statistics, mathematical scientists in the workplace, and the role played
by colleges and universities.
Changing America: The New Face of Science and Engineering, Final Report.
Washington, DC: Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in
Science and Technology, 1990.
Recommendations are presented to improve and extend mathematics and science
education for all students.
The Common Thread: Best Practice for Students With Disabilities. Paper presented
at the Working Conference on Science Education for Persons With Disabilities,
Anaheim, CA, March, 1994.
Provides an overview of literature on best practice with strategies and
activities to educate students with disabilities in science.
Computer Equity in Math and Science: A Trainer's Workshop Guide. Jo Sanders
and Mary McGinnis. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1991.
A detailed guide to conduct an introductory workshop on gender equity in
computer education can also be used to promote equity in mathematics and
The Computer Explosion: Implications for Educational Equity. Sheryl Denbo,
ed. Washington, DC: Mid-Atlantic Centers for Race and Sex Equity, 1983.
Examines the impact of computer technology and programs in the classroom,
on curriculum, and on access by girls and boys.
Computers and Cultural Diversity: Restructuring for School Success. Robert
A. Devillar and Christian J. Falits. Albany, NY: State University of New
York Press, 1991.
Discusses the use of computers and cooperative learning in heterogeneous
classrooms to improve achievement of all students, particularly those from
Constructivist Views on the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics. Robert
B. Davis and others, eds. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics,
1990. (Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, Monograph, 4)
Examines "constructivism" and how it can be applied to the process
of mathematical thinking and to the way in which children characteristically
engage in mathematical activity.
Cooperative Learning and Mathematics: A Multi-Structural Approach. Beth
Andrinin and Spencer Kagan. San Juan Capistrano, CA: Resources for Teachers,
Provides multi-structural lesson plans for specific academic outcomes in
mathematics using cooperative learning as an instructional technique.
Cooperative Learning in Mathematics: A Handbook for Teachers. Neil Davidson.
Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley, 1990.
Procedures are described to provide an alternative to traditional systems
of teaching mathematics; can be applied to elementary classrooms and to
graduate school and all major topic areas in mathematics.
Degrees in Science and Mathematics: National Trends and State-by-State Data.
National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Department
of Education, 1993. (NCES-93-183)
Provides statistical data on bachelor's, master's, and doctor's degrees
in mathematics and science obtained in the United States during the last
ten years. Data are broken down by field, state, and non-citizens, but not
gender and ethnic group.
Doing What Scientists Do: Children Learn to Investigate Their World. Ellen
Doris. Portsmount, NH: Heinemann, 1991.
This practical book helps teachers inspire curiosity and meet the needs
of different children in the primary grades who are studying science; included
are many examples of the children's work.
Double Dilemma: Minorities and Women in Science Education. Jane Butler Kahle.
West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University, 1982.
Describes a cooperative project run in Alabama and Indiana to encourage
and support minorities in science in higher education; includes statistics
on women in science.
EdTalk: What We Know About Science Teaching and Learning; What We Know About
Mathematics Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: Council for Educational
Development and Research, 1993.
Useful and up-to-date information on the pedagogy of mathematics and science
is arranged in a question and answer format. These two books address instructional
materials, equity, assessment, teachers, and parental involvement.
Educating Americans for the 21st Century. National Science Board Commission
on Precollege Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology. Washington,
DC: National Science Foundation, 1983.
A plan of action for improving mathematics, science, and technology education
for all American elementary and secondary students so that their achievement
may be the
best in the world by 1995.
Elementary and Secondary Education for Science and Engineering: A Technical
Memorandum. Washington, DC: Congress of the United States, Office of Technology
Analyzes recruitment into and retention in the science and engineering pipeline;
highlights successful strategies and programs.
Equity and Excellence: Compatible Goals, an Assessment of Programs that
Facilitate Increased Access and Achievement of Females and Minorities in
K-12 Mathematics and Science Education. Shirley M. Malcom. Washington, DC:
American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1984.
Examines pre-college programs for females and minorities in mathematics
and science which indicate that these populations can learn successfully.
Equity Framework in Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education (draft).
National Science Foundation Statewide Systemic Initiative Equity Focus Group.
Newton, MA: Education Development Center, 1994.
Lists benchmarks on equity in the areas of curriculum assessment, professional
development, governance, partnerships, policies, and evaluation.
Equity in the Reform of Mathematics and Science Education: A Look at Issues
and Solutions. Mary Jo Powell. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development
Reviews the literature of equity in mathematics, science and technology,
and discusses the imperatives for assuring educational success for all students.
It also examines a broad range of issues in educational equity from language
to teacher training and expectations.
Evaluation Counts: A Guide to Evaluating Math & Science Programs for
Women. Barbara Gross Davis and Sheila Humphreys. Oakland, CA: Mills College
Math/Science Network, 1983.
Provides basic tools and practices of evaluation geared towards mathematics
and science programs for women; includes an overview of intervention programs
and specific evaluation strategies.
Fear of Math: How to Get Over it and Get on with Life. Claudia Zaslavsky.
New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1994.
Discusses math avoidance and math anxiety as related to gender and racial/ethnic
group; includes autobiographies from people who originally feared math.
and conquered that fear. Includes an extensive resource section.
The Federal Investment in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology
Education: Where Now? What Next? Report of the Expert Panel for the Review
of Federal Education Programs in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and
Technology. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, 1993.
This report presents the recommendations of this special panel to promote
true reform in science, mathematics, engineering and technology education;
they emphasize improved management and coordination of programs, more balanced
distribution of funds, and comprehensive program evaluation.
Feminine Ingenuity: Women and Invention in America. Anne L. Macdonald. New
York: Ballantine, 1992.
The fascinating history of women inventors granted patents is presented
within a historical and social context. It demonstrates clearly that women,
even when hobbled by social mores and stereotypes, could and did produce
an astonishing array of inventions.
Feminism and Science. Nancy Tuana, ed. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University
Addressing the scope of gender bias in science, this book examines the ways
in which science reinforces and is also affected by sexist biases; discusses
feminist critiques on the practice of science.
"Feminism and Science", Hypatia, 3:1, Spring, 1988. Special issue.
Examines the issues of gender in science, of surface inequities that are
deeply based on the complex structure of bias. It continues with an analysis
of the scientific method from a feminist perspective.
Formula for Reform: The Role of the Comprehensive University in Science
and Engineering Education. John C. Wright, ed. Washington, DC: American
Association of State Colleges and Universities, 1989.
Reviews the role to be played by public colleges in science education, including
teacher training and re-training; includes a resource section of programs
available throughout the country.
The Future of Science in Elementary Schools: Educating Prospective Teachers.
Senta A. Raizen and Arie M. Michelson, eds. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass,
Considering that science learning is important for all students and must
start in primary school, this work addresses the education of new elementary
school teachers to teach science effectively. (Very slight reference to
gender and multiculturalism)
Futures Unlimited: Expanding Choices in Nontraditional Careers. Arlene S.
Chasek. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University, Consortium for Educational
Illustrated by photographs of actual conferences, this handbook provides
a step-by-step approach to planning and conducting a Futures Unlimited conference
for 7-12 graders; targets female students to encourage them to continue
studying mathematics and science.
Garbage Pizza, Patchwork Quilts, and Math Magic: Stories About Teachers
Who Love to Teach and Children Who Love to Learn. Susan Ohanian. New York;
W.H. Freeman, 1992.
Describes new initiatives for teaching mathematics in K-3 classrooms around
the country, using first-hand reports from classroom teachers.
GASAT 4, Girls And Science And Technology: Proceedings of the Fourth GASAT
Conference, 1987. Jane Butler Kahle and others, eds. West Lafayette, IN:
Purdue University, 1988.
Proceedings and papers from this international conference address issues
of science and technology education for girls in many different countries
GASAT 5, Gender And Science And Technology: Contributions to the Fifth International
Conference, 1989. Haifa, Israel: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology,
Papers discuss issues of gender equity in pre-college education, the participation
of women in science and engineering, and workplace and "pipeline"
GASAT 7, Gender And Science and Technology: Contributions to the Seventh
International Conference, 1993. Sharon Haggerty and Ann Holmes, eds. Toronto,
Ont.: Ontario Women's Directorate, 1994.
Research reports and intervention projects demonstrate an enormous range
of activity around the world dealing with gender equity in mathematics and
Gender and Mathematics: An International Perspective. Leone Burton, ed.
London: Cassell Educational, 1990.
Collection of papers from the International Organization of Women in Mathematics
Education (I.O.W.M.E.) reflects the range of work linking gender and mathematics
around the world. It introduces methodologies and questions that are relevant
to different cultures.
Girls Count in Math and Science: A Handbook for Teachers. Mary Barnes and
others. Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia: Mathematical Association of NSW, Girls
and Mathematics Action, 1984.
Provides strategies and activities to increase girls' participation in mathematics
and science in high schools, with a section for parents; includes Australian
Girls into Maths Can Go. Leone Burton, ed. London: Holt, Rinehart and Winston,
These papers review and contrast the situation in the U.S. and the U.K.
with reference to "math anxiety", and gender differences in mathematics
Guidebook to Excellence: A Directory of Federal Resources for Mathematics
for the Mid-Atlantic Region, served by the Mid-Atlantic Eisenhower Consortium
for Mathematics and Science Education. Columbus, OH: Eisenhower National
Comprehensive directory of programs and facilities supporting K-12 education
in mathematics and science. Lists agencies and regional programs.
Handbook for Conducting Equity Activities in Mathematics Education. Helen
Neely Cheek, ed. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics,
Abstracts from conference presentations assist educators with equity issues
in mathematics education. The handbook includes how to organize conferences
for students and teachers.
Handbook on Improving the Retention and Graduation of Minorities in Engineering.
Raymond B. Landis, ed. New York: National Action Council for Minorities
in Engineering, 1985.
This manual addresses problems specific to African American, Latino, and
Native American students and examines the barriers which prevent them from
succeeding in engineering. It lacks coverage of the special problems of
the minority female.
The History of Women and Science, Health, and Technology: A Bibliographic
Guide to the Professions and Disciplines. Phyllis Holman Weisbard, ed. Madison,
WI: University of Wisconsin System Women's Studies Librarian, 1993.
This annotated bibliography covers perspectives on technology's effects
on women's lives, individual biographies of women in science, and the history
of women in science.
How to Encourage Girls in Math & Science. Joan Skolnick and others.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982.
Examines the effects of sex role socialization on girls from childhood into
high school; provides strategies to develop mathematics and science skills.
(A useful book for parents.)
How to Unravel Science Mysteries for Young Minds Without Unraveling: A Summary
of Lessons Learned. Battle Creek, MI: W.K. Kellogg Foundation, 1993.
Presents the experiences of elementary science projects founded by Kellogg,
addressing hands-on curriculum, parental involvement, and improving teachers
How to Use Cooperative Learning in the Mathematics Class. Alice F. Artzt
and Claire M. Newman. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics,
Practical handbook provides strategies and activities to help teachers infuse
cooperative learning into their math classes, listing features of successful
IDEAAAS: Sourcebook for Science, Mathematics and Technology Education. Barbara
Walthall, ed. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of
This extensive and comprehensive compendium of national, state and local
resources in mathematics, science and technology provides parents, teachers,
and students with information on clubs, camps, museums, activities, research
opportunities, internship and mentoring programs and publications.
Images of Science: A Summary of Results From the 1981-82 National Assessment
of Science. Stacey J. Hueftle. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Science
Assessment and Research Project, 1983.
The results of a national random sample of 9, 13, and 17-year-old students
tested for response to science content and their attitude to science are
analyzed by sex and race.
Improving Science Education Through Local Alliances, A Report to the Carnegie
Corporation of New York. Myron J. Atkin and Ann Atkin. Santa Cruz, CA: Network
This study focuses on new, inter-institutional approaches to the improvement
of science education, K-12, and examines the relationships amongst schools,
industry, universities, and other organizations.
In Search of Gender Free Paradigms for Computer Science Education. Dianne
C. Martin and Eric Murchie-Beyma eds. Eugene, OR: International Society
for Technology in Education, 1992.
A review of the research on gender in computer science and examines the
differential achievement levels and involvement of females and males in
computer environments, both in education and in employment and play.
Indicators of Science and Mathematics Education. Larry Suter, ed. Washington,
DC: National Science Foundation, 1992.
Examines student performance. curriculum and instructional practices, quality
of teaching force and persistence of students taking science and math; includes
data by sex, race, ethnicity.
Industry's Role in the Reform of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education.
Report of the Synergy Conference, June, 1993, Leesburg, VA. College Park,
MD: Triangle Coalition for Science and Technology Education, 1994.
Purpose of this conference was to define and initiate new roles for industry
in the systemic reform of K-12 science, mathematics and technology education,
with strategies to dovetail with the national goals.
Innumeracy: Mathematical Illiteracy and Its Consequences. John Allen Paulos.
New York: Hill & Wang, 1988.
The general inability of people to deal rationally with large numbers, or
with the probabilities and statistics associated with them, results in misunderstandings
and misinformation. There is also a general reluctance to come to grips
with growing mathematics illiteracy.
An International Review of Gender and Mathematics. Erika Schildkamp-Kuendiger.
Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental
Reports from researchers provide comparative information on the issue of
mathematics and gender from Australia, Canada, Dominican Republic, England,
Wales, India, Ireland, Israel, New Zealand, and the United States.
Intervention Programs in Math, Science, and Computer Science for Minority
and Female Students in Grades Four through Eight. Beatriz Chu Clewell and
others. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1987.
Directory of programs describes criteria for the programs' nomination and
selection; evaluation identifies successful delivery models and pinpoints
gaps in services to female and minority students at a crucial time in their
Investing in Human Potential: Science and Engineering at the Crossroads.
Marsha Lakes Matyas and Shirley M. Malcom. Washington, DC: American Association
for the Advancement of Science, 1991.
Examines efforts by higher education to increase the participation of women,
non-Asian minorities, and people with physical disabilities in science and
Launching A Dream: A Teachers Guide To A Simulated Space Shuttle Mission.
National Aeronautic Space Administration. Cleveland, OH: Lewis Research
Provides students an opportunity to plan, train for, and conduct a simulated
shuttle mission, taking the roles of astronauts, flight planners and controllers,
and flight engineers. Good for career information and experience of team
The Levels of Mathematics Achievement: Initial Performance Standards for
the 1990 NAEP Mathematics Assessment. Mary Lyn Bourque and Howard H. Garrison.
Washington, DC: National Assessment Governing Board, 1991.
1, National and State Summaries; 2, State Results for Released Items.
State by state results describe what American students know and can do,
and also evaluate whether that performance is good enough for students and
the nation to flourish.
Lifting the Barriers: 600 Tested Strategies that Really Work to Increase
Girls' Participation in Science, Mathematics and Computers. Jo Sanders.
Port Washington, NY: Jo Sanders Publications, 1994.
Based on the experiences of the participants in the Computer Equity Project,
this book contains successful strategies leading to increased enrollment
of girls in advanced courses and after-school clubs in mathematics and science.
Making Sense of the Literature on Equity in Education, Draft One "...A
Think Piece..." Jeanne Rose Century. Newton, MA: Education Development
Center, SSI Technical Assistance, 1994.
Attempts to delineate some of the major areas of research, program implementation
and debate rooted in the issue of equity starting with an overview of the
literature, then identifying the stakeholders and examining recent developments
in multicultural education.
Mathematics and Gender. Elizabeth Fennema and Gilah C. Leder, eds. New York:
Teachers College, Columbia University, 1990.
These longitudinal studies provide better understanding of how girls and
boys learn mathematics and explain why they learn differently. The book
includes a cross-cultural perspective on Australian research.
Mathematics and Science: Critical Filters for the Future of Minority Students.
DeAnna Banks Beane, ed. Washington, DC: Mid-Atlantic Center for Race Equity,
Surveys the factors underlying the underrepresentation of African Americans,
Latinos, and Native Americans in advanced mathematics and science courses.
It presents resources and strategies to support change, and inclusion in
mathematics and science of role models from underrepresented groups.
Mathematics in Art/Art in Mathematics. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University,
Consortium for Educational Equity; Montclair, NJ: Montclair Art Museum,
This enrichment program for high school students uses art to enhance visual-spatial
skills and mathematics to increase appreciation of design. Included are
slides and diagrams of selected art and craft works.
The Mathematics Report Card: Are We Measuring Up? Princeton, NJ: Educational
Testing Service, 1988.
Based on the 1986 National Assessment, the levels of mathematical achievement
answer the title's question "no"; too many students lack mathematical
reasoning skills to work effectively both in higher education and in the
Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education Programs that Work: A Collection
of Exemplary Educational Programs and Practices in the National Diffusion
Network. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational
Research and Improvement, 1994.
This guide to the National Diffusion Network's science and mathematics programs
provides teachers with innovative programs that work and can be readily
Measuring Up: Prototypes for Mathematics Assessment. National Research Council
and the Mathematical Sciences Education Board. Washington, DC: National
Academy Press, 1993.
Prototypes of tasks are created to assess fourth graders' mathematical skills
and knowledge, reflecting demands of the NCTM standards.
Model Programs to Attract Young Minority Women to Engineering and Science:
Report of a Working Conference. Rachelle S. Heller and C. Dianne Martin.
Washington, DC: National Science Foundation, 1994.
This report addresses the problem of the lack of minority women in the engineering
and science fields and responds by analyzing exemplary programs that exist
to rectify this situation.
Multicultural Mathematics. David Nelson and others. Oxford: Oxford University
Examines the teaching of mathematics from a global or multicultural perspective
and how to apply selected topics in elementary arithmetic, algebra, geometry
and statistics. Includes brief references to "anti-racist" teaching,
but nothing on gender.
National Center for Improving Science Education Reports. Andover, MA: The
This series of reports includes: Assessment in Science Education: The Middle
Years; Science and Technology Education for the Middle Years; Developing
and Supporting Teachers for Science Education in the Middle Years.
National Conference on Diversity in the Scientific and Technological Workforce:
An Action Plan (draft). National Science Foundation, Directorate for Education
and Human Resources. Washington, DC: 1994.
Focuses on the inclusion of science, mathematics, engineering and technology
education (SMET) as one of the eight strategic areas for research and action;
lists steps to be taken for successfully achieving the national science
goal by the year 2000.
National Science Education Standards: July '93 Progress Report . National
Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment. Washington, DC:
National Research Council, 1993.
This interim report provides a list of proposed standards for assessment
and achievement in science.
New Equations: The Urban Schools Science and Mathematics Program. Elayne
Archer. Washington, DC: Academy for Educational Development, 1993.
The efforts of this program to improve middle school science and mathematics
in urban districts pinpoint algebra as a critical factor in determining
minority students access to advanced courses and their continuing achievement.
No Gift Wasted: Effective Strategies for Educating Highly Able Disadvantaged
Students in Mathematics and Science. Judith Alamprese and Wendy Erlanger.
Washington, DC: COSMOS Corporation, 1989.
Analyzes district-wide as well as building-level efforts to develop disadvantaged
students' academic skills and creative talents in mathematics and science;
it includes case studies.
Nurturing At-Risk Youth in Math and Science: Curriculum and Teaching Considerations.
Randolf Tobias, ed. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service, 1992.
Assists teachers to infuse different strategies and curricular extensions
into the teaching and learning process of mathematics and science in order
to raise students' interest, and to increase their self-confidence and self-esteem.
Discusses issues of race and ethnicity, but not gender.
Nurturing Science and Engineering Talent: A Symposium. Philadelphia, PA:
The Franklin Institute, 1986.
This symposium discusses the science and engineering talent pool, factors
in career choice, and the importance of intervention programs, especially
for women and students of color.
Options for Girls: A Door to the Future, an Anthology on Science and Math
Education. Meg Wilson, ed. Austin, TX: pro-ed, 1992.
Anthology of key articles on sex differences and gender equity in mathematics
and science provide an overview of the subject published in the last ten
years; a valuable collection.
Persistence in Science of High-Ability Minority Students. Thomas Hilton
and others. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1988.
Analysis of surveys and follow-up questionnaires shows that high ability
minority students persist in mathematics, science, and engineering fields
to a high degree. The report identifies characteristics for success.
Proceedings of the National Conference on Women in Mathematics and the Sciences.
Sandra Keith and Philip Keith, eds. St. Cloud, MN: St. Cloud State University,
Papers provide up-to-date information and research on women and minorities
in mathematics, science, and engineering; included are model programs, outreach,
promotion, and "glass ceiling" information.
Promising Practices in Mathematics and Science Education: A Collection of
Promising Educational Programs and Practices from the Laboratory Network
Program, 1994. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education and available
from the Regional Educational Laboratories.
A rigorous review process resulted in the selection of 66 programs, ranging
from individual classroom activities to system-wide multi-grade efforts.
Promoting Success Through Collaborative Ventures in Precollege Science and
Mathematics. New York: National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering,
Lists and describes programs whose aim is to bring students to mathematics
and science study who would not otherwise be there. It specifically targets
Reaching All Students with Mathematics. Reston, VA: National Council of
Teachers of Mathematics, 1993.
Collection of accounts documents the activities and programs being developed
and tested in classrooms to bring mathematics to all students; sections
on making change address teaching and learning, both content and process.
Realizing the Potential of Women and Minorities in Engineering: Four Perspectives
from the Field. Jane Zimmer Daniels and others. Washington, DC: National
Governors' Association, 1990.
Results of the project by the NGA to identify successful intervention strategies
to bring women and minorities into engineering are translated into state
Reflections on Gender and Science. Evelyn Fox Keller. New Haven: Yale University
Nine essays examine the "genderization of science" from historic,
psychoanalytic, and scientific perspectives. They also reflect on the sexual
division of labor where science remains a masculine preserve.
Report on the 1985-86 National Survey of Science and Mathematics Education.
Iris R. Weiss. Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute,
Research survey provides information on science and mathematics course offerings,
textbook selection, instructional objectives, use or non-use of calculators
and computers, and teacher level of education and qualifications.
Results From the Second Mathematics Assessment. Thomas P. Carpenter and
others. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1981.
Item by item analysis points to overall decline in performance and provides
a basis for the pattern of changes. This book includes information on race
and gender differences in mathematics.
Science Achievement in Seventeen Countries: A Preliminary Report. International
Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. Oxford: Pergamon
This report presents the initial results of science achievement tests of
10, 14, and 17-year olds, and finds that the United States does poorly in
comparison to other developed countries. The report includes data on gender
Science and Engineering Indicators, 1987. National Science Board. Washington,
DC: National Science Foundation, 1988.
Broad base of quantitative analysis and information on science, engineering,
and technology provides excellent data on precollege science and mathematics
education; higher education for science; research, development, and innovation.
Included are data by race and gender.
Science and Engineering Programs: On Target for Women? Marsha Lakes Matyas
and Linda Skidmore Dix, eds. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1992.
Examines the status of women in science and engineering, including programs
specifically aimed at retaining women in postsecondary education and R and
Science and Gender: A Critique of Biology and Its Theories on Women. Ruth
Bleier. New York: Pergamon Press, 1984.
Analyzes the role that science plays in maintaining the myth of women's
biological inferiority; discusses ethnocentric and androcentric biases in
scientific methodology, and describes the possibility of a feminist science.
Science Anxiety: Fear of Science and How to Overcome It. Jeffry V. Mallow.
Clearwater, FL: H & H Publishing, 1986.
Written for students and teachers, as well as parents, this book examines
science anxiety and recommends strategies to counteract it and to increase
scientific literacy at all levels.
Science Assessment in the Service of Reform. Gerald Kulm and Shirley M.
Malcom, eds. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of
This report addresses policy issues in science assessment, and how science
assessment impacts on and is itself affected by curricular reform and instruction.
Science Education Partnerships: Manual for Scientists and K-12 Teachers.
Art Sussman, San Francisco, CA: University of California, 1993.
Describes how to initiate a partnership between scientists and educators,
using a wide variety of different models, in an effort to provide systematic
change in precollege science education.
Science Experiences: Cooperative Learning and the Teaching of Science. Jack
Hassard. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley, 1990.
Science experiences (or lessons) are described within the rubric of cooperative
learning, with content information for both student and teacher.
Science for All Americans. Revised Edition. James F. Rutherford and Andrew
Ahlgren. New York, Oxford University Press, 1994.
The report of Project 2061 provides philosophy and content to ensure that
all students become well-educated in science, mathematics and technology.
Science for All Students: The Florida Pre K-12 Science Curriculum Framework,
A Guide for Curriculum Planners. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Department of
Designed to assist curriculum planners, this framework promotes and discusses
a flexible instructional system to operate a quality science program. Includes
recommendations for planning and evaluation and delineates what students
Science Matters: Achieving Scientific Literacy. Robert M. Hazen and James
Trefil. New York: Doubleday, 1991.
Aimed at the general reader, this book provides information needed to become
scientifically literate and knowledgeable about those topics of importance
for a citizen of the technologically complex society.
Science Report Card: Elements of Risk and Recovery. Ina Mullis and Lynn
B. Jenkins. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1988.
Uses trends in science proficiency to examine opportunities available to
study science, the nature of school science, home support of science learning,
and students' perceptions of science. Data are reported out by gender and
Science Report Card: NAEP's Assessment of Fourth, Eighth, and Twelfth Graders.
Lee R. Jones and others. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, 1992.
Presents information documenting lack of preparation in science, and comparatively
low achievement of African Americans, Latinos, females, and economically
The Science, Technology, Society Movement. Robert E. Yager, ed. Washington,
DC: National Science Teachers Association, 1993. (What Research Says to
the Science Teacher, vol. 7)
The Science, Technology, Society (STS) movement involves learners in experiences
and issues which are directly related to their lives. STS provides students
with skills which allow them to become active responsible citizens knowledgeable
in science and its impact on their lives.
Sex and Ethnic Differences in Middle School Mathematics, Science and Computer
Science: What Do We Know? Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1985.
Reviews gender differences within ethnicity and examines factors related
to achievement in mathematics and science.
Sex and Scientific Inquiry. Sandra Harding and Jean F. O'Barr, eds. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 1987.
By reconsidering science in light of new research in gender, this book examines
the social structure of science and the bias extant in biology, sociology,
Social Processes of Sex Differentiation in Mathematics. David R. Maines.
Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Program on Women, 1981.
This study determines the importance of role modeling occurring among males
and females in mathematics and its function to reduce biases based on gender;
main differentiation seems to lie in anticipated patterns of career and
A Strategy for Change in Elementary School Science. Proceedings of the National
Science Teachers Association conference held in Washington, DC, February,
Conference presents strategies for change and highlights programs developed
in elementary science within school districts.
Teacher Education and Mathematics: A Course to Reduce Math Anxiety and Sex
Role Stereotyping in Elementary Education. Elaine B. Chapline and Claire
M. Newman, eds. Newton, MA: Education Development Center, 1985.
This comprehensive approach enables prospective teachers to reduce their
own levels of "math-anxiety", and to develop solid mathematics
Teaching Mathematics: Strategies That Work, K-12. Mark Driscoll and Jere
Confrey, eds. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1986.
Described by the teachers who created them, these exemplary mathematics
programs stress the importance of teacher-teacher peer interactions in order
to solve common mathematics teaching problems successfully.
Teaching Mathematics Effectively and Equitably to Females. Katherine Hansen.
Newton, MA: Education Development Center, 1992.
(Center for Equity and Cultural Diversity Working Paper, 1).
Reviews the nature of mathematics education in order to identify ways of
increasing girls' interest and achievement in mathematics.
Teaching Science and Health From a Feminist Perspective: A Practical Guide.
Sue V. Rosser. New York: Pergamon Press, 1986.
This guide examines changing pedagogical methods and specific curricular
areas, to integrate gender into the curriculum as well as to improve classroom
The Technology Studies Framework: Thinking, Making, Doing. Errol Maruff
and Peter Clarkson. Melbourne, Vic: Ministry of Education, 1988.
Defines and provides rationale for technology studies to be incorporated
into the curriculum from primary grades on. Discusses teaching strategies
with sample activities.
The Third National Mathematics Assessment: Results, Trends and Issues. National
Assessment of Educational Progress. Denver: Education Commission of the
Performance levels for 9,13, and 17-year old in mathematics are assessed
over a period of 10 years; included are data by sex and origin.
Trends in the Selection of Science, Mathematics, or Engineering as Major
Fields of Study Among Top-Scoring SAT Takers. Jerilee Grandy. Princeton,
NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1987.
This report examines the choice of major fields of study by top-scoring
examinees, and finds few differences between the races but large differences
between the sexes.
The Underachieving Curriculum: Assessing U.S. School Mathematics From an
International Perspective. Curtis C. McKnight and others. Champaign, IL:
Stipes Publishing, 1987.
Report of the Second International Mathematics Study examines teaching and
learning of mathematics in the United States through the achievement and
attitudes to mathematics of 13-year olds and high school seniors enrolled
in advanced mathematics courses.
Understanding Sex/Ethnic Related Differences in Mathematics, Science and
Computer Science for Students in Grades Four to Eight. Marlaine Lockheed
and others. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1985.
Extensive review of the literature finds that little research has addressed
gender differences within ethnicity, especially in the study of science
and mathematics at the middle school.
Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives: Women in Science, 1789-1979. Pnina G.
Abir-Am and Dorinda Outram, eds. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press,
Analyzes how the interplay between career and professional life has affected
the participation of women in science. Biographical studies of women scientists
illustrate the personal and institutional difficulties suffered in different
disciplines and places.
Wanted: More Women in Science and Technology, a Packet of Information and
Suggestions for Junior and High School Counselors and Teachers Explaining
the Importance of a Strong Background in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics.
New York: American Physical Society, Committee on the Status of Women in
Who Will Do Science? Sue E. Berryman. New York: Rockefeller Foundation,
Examines the statistics of women and five racial/ethnic groups in quantitative
degrees up to the Ph.D. level in relation to the scientific talent pool
and identifies causes of underrepresentation.
Whose Science? Whose Knowledge? Thinking From Women's Lives. Sandra Harding.
Ithaca, NY, Cornell University, 1991.
Explores the social and intellectual contexts for thinking about women,
feminism, science and knowledge; also looks to the lives of groups that
have not been central to Western feminist discussions of science.
Windows of Opportunity: Mathematics for Students with Special Needs. Carol
A. Thorton and Nancy S. Bley, eds. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers
of Mathematics, 1994.
Addresses current issues of concern relating to high quality, broad-based,
equitable school mathematics programs for students with special needs; includes
Women: Their Underrepresentation and Career Differentials in Science and
Engineering. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation, 1987.
These proceedings examine the educational pipeline for girls in mathematics
and science, identifying the negative effects and citing the positive efforts
to ensure equitable treatment of girls and women, precollege to postgraduate.
Women and Minorities in Science: Strategies for Increasing Participation.
Sheila M. Humphreys, ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1982.
Surveys current levels of participation by women and minorities in the study
of science and scientific careers, identifies barriers to participation,
and describes a wide range of intervention programs.
Women and the Mathematical Mystique. Lynn H. Fox and others, eds. Baltimore:
Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980.
This expanded version of the American Association for the Advancement of
Science symposium brings together basic research into sex differences in
mathematics achievement and describes early intervention programs- a classic.
Women in Mathematics and Physics: Inhibitors and Enhancers. Susan Frazier-Kouassi,
and others. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Center for the Education
of Women, 1992.
By detailing the determinants of women's persistence in mathematics and
physics at the undergraduate and graduate level, this research describes
characteristics of these women as they continue studying; includes enrollment
and retention data.
Women in Science: A Report From the Field. Jane Butler Kahle, ed. Philadelphia:
Falmer Press, 1985.
Papers discuss factors affecting female achievement and interest in science
and scientific careers, from high school to the post-doctorate. Women's
roles in scientific organizations, discrepancies between women and men in
science, and the "double bind" for minority women are also explored.
Women in Science and Engineering: Increasing Their Number in the 1990's,
A Statement on Policy and Strategy. National Research Council, Committee
on Women in Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: National Academy Press,
This report examines the science and engineering education infrastructure
and the effectiveness of intervention programs to sustain the recruitment
and retention of women into science and engineering. It also includes data
on participation rate and career paths.
Women in Scientific and Engineering Professions. Violet B. Haas and Carolyn
C. Perucci. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1984.
Papers examine career opportunities and the status of women professionals
in science, social science, and engineering; some ideas and strategies to
encourage and increase the participation of women in science are included.
Women, Minorities and the Disabled in Science and Technology. Hearing before
the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology of the Committee on
Science, Space and Technology, House of Representatives. Washington, DC,
Testimony from those working in this field makes a case for reallocation
of resources and programs to encourage these underrepresented groups into
Women Scientists in America: Struggles and Strategies. Margaret W. Rossiter.
Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982.
Examines women's efforts to gain significant education in the sciences and
to enter the scientific world, with an emphasis is on research and academia.
A World of Differences: An International Assessment of Mathematics and Science.
Archie E. LaPointe and others. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service,
Thirteen year-old students from six countries were randomly selected to
be tested in mathematics and science. Comparative data show poor performance
by students in the United States.
The Young Scientists: America's Future and the Winning of the Westinghouse.
Joseph, Berger. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1994.
Explores the controversial process of finding, collecting and nurturing
gifted students, using the schools for gifted science students and the Westinghouse
contest to understand the value of teaching research in science at a young
AWIM Newsletter. Association for Women in Mathematics, PO Box 178, Wellesley
College, Wellesley, MA 02181.
AWIS Newsletter. Association for Women in Science, 1346 Connecticut Avenue
Suite 1122, Washington, DC 20036.
Connect: K-8 Hands-On Science and Math Across the Curriculum. Teachers'
Laboratory, P.O. Box 6480, Brattleboro, VT 05302.
Focus on Science Education. California Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate
Park, San Francisco, CA 94118.
International Organization of Women and Mathematics Education (IOWME): Newsletter.
c/o Sherry Fraser, Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley,
International Study Group on Ethnomathematics Newsletter. Rick Scott, College
of Education, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131.
National Science Resources Center Newsletter. Smithsonian Institution, National
Science Resources Center, Arts & Industries Building, Room 1201, MRC
403, Washington, DC 20560.
Project 2061. American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1333
H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005.
Teachers Clearinghouse for Science and Society Education Newsletter. 1 West
88th Street, New York, NY 10024.
U.S. Woman Engineer. Society of Women Engineers, 120 Wall Street, New York,
Women and Mathematics Education Newsletter. c/o Charlene and James Morrow,
Mt. Holyoke College, 302 Shattuk Hall, South Hadley, MA 01075.